Natural product analysis using Carbon-14 is a valuable scientific tool that can be used to confirm the naturality of cannabidiol-based (CBD) ingredients by verifying the percentage of a product that is obtained from naturally-sourced ingredients. Determining the percentage of biobased content in a product allows companies to ensure their CBD ingredients are truly natural-derived, identify the presence of synthetic adulterants, and authenticate marketing and “natural” labeling claims.
Why consider natural product analysis using Carbon-14 to validate your natural CBD products?
Carbon-14 is an isotope present in naturally-sourced materials. Natural product analysis measures the percentage of Carbon-14 present in an ingredient or product. Higher percentages indicate that a product is primarily or completely made with natural-sourced ingredients as opposed to synthetic, petroleum-derived alternatives. These cheaper, synthetic alternatives created from petroleum-based sources cannot be measured using Carbon-14. A product that is all-natural and completely plant-sourced will show a result of 100% biobased content whereas a low or zero percentage will reveal a product that is partially or completely formulated with synthetic adulterants.
Why should you be concerned with verifying the naturality of your CBD products? In recent years, the popularization of CBD extract has increased its demand as an ingredient in personal care and cosmetic products. Higher costs associated with the use of natural CBD extract instead of artificial extracts leads to the use of adulterated ingredients by some manufacturers or false label claims that a product is natural when it is not.
How can you prove your products are the real deal and ensure your customers are sure they’re getting the natural ingredients they expect? Artificial ingredients derived from petrochemical sources do not contain any carbon-14 content. The results of natural product analysis reveal the percentage of a sample that is procured from natural sources, allowing manufacturers and quality assurance teams to confirm their CBD ingredients and products are not synthetic or adulterated and to strengthen claims that their product is truly natural-derived.
Natural product analysis can authenticate the natural content of your CBD products. Validating naturality with Carbon-14 testing strengthens label and marketing claims and confirms your products and ingredients are completely natural and do not contain cheap synthetic adulterants. By verifying the percentage of our product that comes from natural sources as opposed to artificial, petrochemical sources, you can guarantee your product is genuinely made with natural CBD extract.
According to a press release, Drug Plastics & Glass, a packaging company that specializes in cannabis bottles and closures, announced new tools for their customers to calculate their carbon footprint. The company launched six new sustainability calculators with the goal to help their customers get more informed about their carbon footprint.
According to Jeff Johnson, director of marketing and business development for Drug Plastics, they want to show how small, incremental changes can have a lasting impact on a company’s environmental sustainability.“From switching to more eco-friendly resin and eliminating flame treatment, to calculating the savings gained from choosing PET plastic over glass, or eliminating collateral packaging, these calculators show how making simple changes can have a big impact on the environment,” says Johnson.
Here are some of their sustainability calculators they recently launched:
PCR PET Resin Sustainability Calculator: Reduce greenhouse gases by making new products from PCR PET removes plastic from the environment by converting PET plastic discarded by the consumer back into resin that can be used again.
Flaming Elimination Calculator: Conserve fossil fuels by opting out of the flame treatment process traditionally used to ensure water-based adhesive labels and silk screening would adhere properly to HDPE, LDPE, and PP bottles. Today, this is not always necessary.*
Bag Reduction Calculator: Determine the individual savings when you move to single bagging instead of double bagging bottles and closures inside the carton.
Concentrate Elimination Calculator: Switch from white pigmented bottles to those made with resin in its natural color state and eliminate CO2
Glass to PET Conversion Calculator: PET requires less energy to produce and saves on transportation costs.
Glass to HDPE Conversion Calculator: See the sustainable improvements in weight, transportation costs, and durability when you use HDPE instead of glass.
Hemp-based construction materials are an attractive option for achieving environmentally friendly goals in construction, including reduced emissions and conservation of natural resources. Hemp construction materials dating back to the 6th Century have been discovered in France and it has long been eyed with interest by hemp growers and manufacturers, as well as environmentalists in the United States and abroad. As the European Union moves forward with its 2019 European Green Deal, United States hemp, construction and limestone industries, as well as regulatory agencies, will be provided with an important preview of the benefits, risks and issues arising out of the use of hemp in construction.
The European Green Deal and Circular Economy Action Plan
Hemp applications in construction are gaining increased interest as the EU seeks to neutralize its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Much of the specifics for this transition to zero emissions are outlined in the EU’s “A New Circular Economy Action Plan,” announced on March 11, 2020. According to the EU, “This Circular Economy Action Plan provides a future-oriented agenda for achieving a cleaner and more competitive Europe in co-creation with economic actors, consumers, citizens and civil society organisations.” The plan aims at accelerating the transformational change required by the European Green Deal and tackles emissions and sustainability issues across a number of industries and products, including construction.
Construction in the EU accounts for approximately 50% of all extracted natural resources and more than 35% of the EU’s total waste generation. According to the plan, greenhouse gas emissions from material extraction, manufacturing of construction products and construction and renovation of buildings are estimated at 5-12% of total national greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that greater material efficiency could save 80% of those emissions. To achieve those savings, the plan announces various efforts to address sustainability, improve durability and increase energy efficiency of construction materials.
How Hemp Could Help Europe Achieve Neutral Emissions
Hemp, and specifically hempcrete, is being eyed with heightened interest as the EU enacts its plan. Indeed, recent mergers and acquisitions in the European hemp industry signal just how attractive this hemp-based product may be as international, national and local green initiatives gain momentum. But how would hemp be utilized in construction and what types of legal issues will this industry face as it expands?
The primary hemp-based construction material is “hempcrete.” Hempcrete is typically composed of hemp hurds (the center of the hemp plant’s stalk), water and lime (powdered limestone). These materials are mixed into a slurry. The slurry petrifies the hemp and the mixture turns into stone once it cures. Some applications mix other, traditional construction materials with the hempcrete. The material can be applied like stucco or turned into bricks. According to the National Hemp Association, hempcrete is non-toxic, does not release gaseous materials into the atmosphere, is mold-resistant, is fire– and pest-resistant, is energy-efficient and sustainable. To that last point, hemp, which is ready for harvest after approximately four months, provides clear advantages over modern construction materials, which are either mined or harvested from old forests. Furthermore, the use of lime instead of cement reduces the CO2 emissions of construction by about 80%.
Watching Europe with an Eye on Regulation and Liability Risks
Hempcrete indeed sounds like a wünder-product for the construction industry (and the hemp industry). Unfortunately, while it may alleviate some of the negative environmental impacts of the construction sector, it will not alleviate the threat of litigation in this industry, particularly in the litigious United States. The European Union’s experience with it will provide important insights for U.S. industries.
Because hemp was only recently legalized in the United States with the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, it is not included in mainstream building codes in the United States, the International Residential Code, nor the International Building Code. Fortunately, there are pathways for the consideration and use of non-traditional materials, like hempcrete, in building codes. However, construction applications of any form of hemp, including hempcrete, at this point would likely require extensive discussions with local building authorities and an application showing that the performance criteria for the building are satisfied by the material. Such criteria would include standards and testing relating to structural performance, thermal performance, and fire resistance. Importantly, the ASTM does have a subcommittee working on various performance standards for hemp in construction applications. European progress on this front would pave an important regulatory pathway for the United States, as well as provide base-line standards for evaluating hempcrete materials.
Insights into regulation and performance standards are not the only reason to watch the EU construction industry in the coming decades. Introduction of hempcrete and hemp-based building materials in the United States will likely stoke litigation surrounding these materials. Although there is no novel way to avoid the most common causes of construction litigation, including breach of contract, quality of construction, delays, non-payment and personal injury, the lessons learned in Europe could provide risk management and best-practice guidance for the U.S. industry. Of particular concern for the hemp industry should be the potential for product liability, warranty, and consumer protection litigation in the United States. The European experience with hempcrete’s structural performance, energy efficiency, mold-, pest- and fire-resistant properties will be informative, not just for the industry, but also for plaintiff attorneys. Ensuring that hempcrete has been tested appropriately and meets industry gold-standards will be paramount for the defense of such litigation and EU practices will be instructive.
The United States construction industry, and particularly hempcrete product manufacturers, should pay close attention as the EU expands green construction practices, including the use of hempcrete. The trials and errors of European industry counterparts will inform U.S. regulations, litigation and risk management best practices.
Throughout the United States, a majority of cannabis for medical and adult use is grown indoors, which requires a tremendous amount of energy and is generally inefficient. State regulators and cultivators alike are beginning to notice the benefits of greenhouse and outdoor-grown cannabis, primarily for energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.
Edible Garden is certified by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), which provides internationally recognized benchmarks and guidance for managing food safety and meeting standards. According to Ken VandeVrede, chief operating officer of Terra Tech, the company plans to take these cutting-edge practices and standards from cultivating produce to the cannabis industry to grow quality, sustainable and safe cannabis in states where it is currently legal.
The company is actively making its operations more environmentally sustainable via greenhouse cultivation, Dutch style hydroponics, shipping locally, and integrated pest management. “We plan on implementing guidance from our two years of GFSI certification and our organic certification along with all of our practices from the food side and bring them to cannabis; for us, it is just another plant,” says VandeVrede. With the help of computer automation, he says they can cultivate cannabis at the commercial scale, creating more homogeneity by removing human elements and utilizing environmental controls. Through computer automated blackout curtains in their greenhouses, they plan to minimize energy usage by using natural sunlight when possible.
“The procedures are very similar across industries so we are creating our own internal standards for cannabis cultivation,” says VandeVrede. “We are trying to be at the forefront of the industry and set the standard for growing cannabis, because right now, there are no standards in place.”
Terra Tech has already started its move into the cannabis industry via its subsidiary, IVXX LLC, which makes medical cannabis extracts for dispensaries in California. The company has also broken ground on cultivation and production facilities in Nevada and dispensaries in California, and submitted an application for licenses in Maryland. “Terra Tech is doing everything with vertical integration in mind; we will control the cultivation, bringing experience from our agricultural background to cultivate high quality and high yield cannabis, making oil and extracts with it to sell in our dispensaries,” adds VandeVrede.
Looking to the future of cannabis cultivation, Terra Tech’s plan is to keep environmental sustainability at top of mind. “As a company we are growing indoor, but moving toward greenhouse cultivation across the board”, says VandeVrede. “Our focus on expansion will be [include] greenhouse-grown cannabis, which is a lot more efficient, saving us money but more importantly reducing our overall carbon footprint.” With more companies adopting these sustainable farming practices, the industry might soon usher in a new era of environmentally friendly cannabis cultivation.
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