For the uninitiated, delta-8 THC is a cannabinoid that can be synthesized from cannabidiol (CBD) derived from hemp. It is an isomer of delta-9 THC, the more commonly known psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. Delta-8 THC does produce psychoactive effects, though not quite as much as its better-known cousin, delta-9 THC.
Due to loopholes in federal and state laws, namely the 2018 Farm Bill specifying that hemp must contain less than 0.3% Delta-9 THC, delta-8 THC is technically legal across the country. It grew in popularity across the United States very quickly over the past year, largely due to online sales.
Following the surge in sales, a number of states including Colorado, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Mississippi, Montana, Rhode Island, Utah and Washington have implemented some form of regulation or outright ban on products containing delta-8 THC. Christopher Hudalla, president and chief scientific officer of ProVerde Laboratories, told Chemical & Engineering News that he has a lot of safety concerns about the whole delta-8 THC craze. Hudalla says he’s more concerned about the processing involved to produce it in large quantities. “These are pretty aggressive synthetic conditions that use strong acids,” Hudalla says. “They might be using strong bases to neutralize. They can use metal catalysts. I hear different people doing it different ways.”
The FDA shares similar concerns. Their fourth point in the consumer update mentions that delta-8 THC products “often involve use of potentially harmful chemicals” in its production. They even claim that some manufacturers might be using unsafe household chemicals to synthesize delta-8 THC. “The final delta-8 THC product may have potentially harmful by-products (contaminants) due to the chemicals used in the process, and there is uncertainty with respect to other potential contaminants that may be present or produced depending on the composition of the starting raw material,” reads the FDA report.
In their consumer update, they note that between December 2020 and July 2021, they received 22 adverse event reports. Of the 22 reports, 14 were hospitalized following ingesting a delta-8 THC product. Notably, those reports included reactions consistent with symptoms from overconsumption of delta-9 THC, such as vomiting, hallucinations, trouble standing, and loss of consciousness.
The FDA says that national poison control centers received 661 cases of delta-8 THC products, with 41% being unintentional exposure, 39% involved pediatric patients and 18% required hospitalization.
In the consumer update, they tell the public that delta-8 THC products have not been evaluated by the FDA and that they “may be marketed in ways that put the public health at risk.” This includes marketing it as a hemp product, which it is. Still though, many consumers associate hemp products with somewhat innocuous things, like CBD oil, which is mostly harmless.
The FDA also mentions in the update that delta-8 THC does have psychoactive and intoxicating effects. The FDA says they are notifying the public about the delta-8 THC due to an uptick in adverse event reports, marketing that is appealing to children and concerns regarding manufacturing with unsafe chemicals and contaminants.
Earlier this year, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) announced a plan to introduce new testing rules for the state’s growing hemp industry. Under the new regulations, hemp products must be tested for residual solvents, heavy metals and pesticides, in addition to making sure they contain less than 0.3% THC.
The CDPHE are planning on a gradual rollout to prevent any supply chain issues or a lab testing bottleneck, similar to what we’ve seen in other states launching new testing requirements in years past, such as Arizona or California. Well, the Colorado rollout appears to be hitting similar snags and because of supply chain issues related to instruments and consumables in laboratories, the implementation of those testing rules is somewhat delayed. What was originally supposed to be implemented over the summer was pushed back to an October 1 deadline, and that deadline has now been pushed back to 2022.
As a result of supply chain shortages and the learning curve to test for such a wide range of pesticides, Colorado is opening hemp testing to out-of-state labs in an effort to stay on schedule with the rollout. Dillon Burns, lab manager at InfiniteCAL, a cannabis testing company with locations in California and Michigan, just completed an audit with the CDPHE in their work to get certified and start conducting hemp testing for businesses in Colorado.
Burns says they’re well-acquainted with the list of pesticides because of how similar the list is to California’s requirements. “For the pesticide testing rules that were supposed to go into effect on August 1st, it’s basically the same list as California just with slightly different action levels,” says Burns. “I would say these action limits are generally stricter – they have much lower LOQs [limits of quantification].”
Come January 1, 2022, they are expecting an additional 40 pesticides to be required under the new rules. “But currently, it’s still unclear when these regulations will actually go into effect,” says Burns. The full pesticide testing list is currently slated to be implemented on April 1, 2022.
The supply chain issues referenced above have a lot to do with what the state is asking labs to test for. Previously, most of the pesticides tested for under Colorado’s adult use and medical cannabis programs could be analyzed with an LC/MS. A handful of pesticides on the new list do require GC/MS, says Burns. It’s entirely possible that a lot of labs in Colorado just don’t have a GC/MS or are in the process of training staff and developing methods for using the new instrument. “Cleanliness of these instruments is such a priority that it takes time to acquire the right skill set for it,” says Burns.
The new testing rollout isn’t just another compliance hurdle for the cannabis industry; these rules are about protecting public health. Dillon Burns said he’s seen hiccups in California with the amount of new hemp farmers getting into the space. “The hemp products we’ve tested in California often fail for pesticides,” says Burns. It’s a lot easier in most states to get a license for growing hemp than it would be for growing adult use cannabis. “You’ll see a lot more novice growers getting into hemp farming without a background in it. They’ll fail for things they just haven’t considered, like environmental drift. We see a lot of fails in CA. Hemp is bioaccumulating so it presents a lot of problems. If they’re not required to look for it, they weren’t monitoring it.”
When asked how the market might react to the new rules, Burns was confident that Colorado knows what they’re doing. “I don’t anticipate that [a testing bottleneck] happening here. The regulators are reasonable, supportive of the industry and opening it up to out-of-state labs should help in preventing that.”
The rise in the number of optimistic regulatory frameworks instigated by various regional governments will positively anchor the forecast for the cannabidiol (CBD) market. The growing awareness regarding the benefits and effects of the product as an alternative treatment method has accelerated its preference among consumers and suppliers. Moreover, the continued advancements in the approval processes by various authorities worldwide have also made way for numerous opportunities supporting CBD market growth.
According to a report by Global Market Insights, Inc, the global CBD market size could exceed $108.8 billion by 2027.
Growing presence in cosmetics
The overall industry share from creams and roll-on products is poised to hit a 35.8% CAGR up to 2027. This is owing to the increasing scope of CBD in cosmetic applications as it is highly effective in treating skin conditions. This, as well as its anti-inflammatory characteristics from a medicinal perspective, are leading to increased demand for CBD products like creams and roll-ons.
Scope in the treatment of mental health
CBD market value from anxiety/stress applications exceeded USD 1.5 billion in 2020 due to the growing need for helping mental health. The World Health Organization reported that over 4.5% of the total population in Europe suffers from depression. This escalating anxiety and stress rate has encouraged healthcare practitioners to increasingly make use of CBD-based medications.
Higher demand for oral administration
Demand for oral cannabidiol administration held nearly 45% of the industry proportion in 2020 due to its growing preference considering the gradual relief of pain compared to other disorders. The increasing dependency on the oral administration route for product development by several manufacturers will add positive impetus to market growth.
Medical benefits of cannabis
Annual revenue of the CBD market from the segment of the market dealing with THC (and CBD) products is expected to cross USD 30.1 billion by 2027. This is largely due to its increasing penetration across various countries and regions on account of its legal status. Furthermore, the relatively higher THC content of the compound has led to its growing usage to combat medical conditions, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, among others.
Online distribution to see a considerable footprint
The online CBD industry was responsible for more than 46% of the market in 2020. This is mainly due to the numerous advantages of online channels, like on-time delivery and adequate inventory, compared to their offline counterparts. Besides, this distribution platform minimizes the operational costs related to the maintenance of brick and mortar retail.
Australia to lead the regional landscape
Australia dominated the Asia Pacific CBD market by holding over 25% of the market share owing to the expanding geriatric population and the liberal stance of the regulating bodies in the region. The permittance to the medicinal and cosmetic use of CBD products is likely to spur regional adoption. The rising amendments in regulatory scenarios have also triggered awareness regarding the potential benefits of the product in the country. For instance, in April 2020, the Australian government released a new proposal for over-the-counter CBD in a bid to relax its narcotic scheduling whilst making it a Schedule 3 substance.
Providers of various CBD products are actively indulging in numerous growth strategies, like acquisitions and partnerships, to reinforce their market presence. For example, Mota Ventures Corp., in January 2020, acquired Spanish producer and online retailer, Sativida OU in a USD 2.2 million deal. The acquisition expanded the company’s presence in Europe and Latin America.
Although the demand for CBD is likely to experience certain hesitation from consumers in the short term, the market will witness lucrative growth in the long run. However, counterfeit and substandard quality products may potentially restrain industry expansion to some extent.
Like any other natural product, the biomass of legal cannabis can be contaminated by several toxic agents such as heavy metals, organic solvents, microbes and pesticides, which significantly influence the safety of the end products.
Let’s just consider the toxicological effects. Since cannabis products are not only administered in edible forms but also smoked and inhaled, unlike most agricultural products, pesticide residue poses an unpredictable risk to consumers. One example is the potential role of myclobutanil in the vape crisis.
Unfortunately, federal and state laws are still conflicted on cannabis-related pesticides. Currently, only ten pesticide products have been registered specifically for hemp by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. So, the question arises what has to be done with all pf the high-value, but also contaminated cannabis, keeping in mind that during the extraction processes, not only the phytocannabinoids get concentrated but the pesticides as well, reaching concentrations up to tens or hundreds of parts per million!
Currently, there are three different sets of rules in place in the regulatory areas of Oregon, California and Canada. These regulations detail which pesticides need to be monitored and remediated if a certain limit for each is reached. Because the most extensive and strict regulations are found in Canada, RotaChrom used its regulations as reference in their case study.
To illustrate that reality sometimes goes beyond our imagination, we evaluated the testing results of a THC distillate sample of one of our clients. This sample contained 9 (!) pesticides, of which six levels exceeded the corresponding action limits. The most frightening, however, regarding this sample, is that it contained a huge amount of carbofuran, a category I substance. It is better not to think of the potential toxicological hazard of this material…
The CPC-based purification of CBD is a well-known and straightforward methodology. As the elution profile on the CPC chromatogram of a distillate shows, major and minor cannabinoids can be easily separated from CBD. At RotaChrom, this method has been implemented at industrial-scale in a cost effective and high throughput fashion. In any case, the question arises: where are the pesticides on this chromatogram? To answer this, we set ourselves the goal to fully characterize the pesticide removing capability of our methodologies.
Our results on this topic received an award at the prestigious PREP Conference in 2019. The ease of pesticides removal depends on the desired Compound of Interest.
Here is a quick recap on key functionalities of the partition chromatography.
Separation occurs between two immiscible liquid phases.
The stationary phase is immobilized inside the rotor by a strong centrifugal force.
The mobile phase containing the sample to be purified is fed under pressure into the rotor and pumped through the stationary phase in the form of tiny droplets (percolation).
The chromatographic column in CPC is the rotor: cells interconnected in a series of ducts attached to a large rotor
Simple mechanism: difference in partition
Let’s get into the chemistry a bit:
The partition coefficient is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible solvents at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a comparison of the solubilities of the solute in these two liquid phases.
The CPC chromatogram demonstrates the separation of Compounds of Interest based on their unique partition coefficients achieved through a centrifugal partition chromatography system.
CPC can be effectively used for pesticide removal. About 78% of the pesticides around CBD are very easy to remove, which you can see here:
In this illustration, pesticides are in ascending order of Kd from left to right. CBD, marked with blue, elutes in the middle of the chromatogram. The chart illustrates that most polar and most apolar pesticides were easily removed beside CBD. However, some compounds were in coelution with CBD (denoted as “problematic”), and some compounds showed irregular Kd-retention behavior (denoted as “outliers”).
If pesticides need to be removed as part of THC purification, then the pesticides that were problematic around CBD would be easier to remove and some of the easy ones would become problematic.
To simulate real-world production scenarios, an overloading study with CBD was performed, which you can see in the graph:
It is easy to see on the chromatogram that due to the increased concentration injected onto the rotor, the peak of CBD became fronting and the apparent retention shifted to the right. This means that pesticides with higher retention than CBD are more prone to coelution if extreme loading is applied.
To be able to eliminate problematic pesticides without changing the components of the solvent system, which is a typical industrial scenario, the so-called “sweet spot approach” was tested. The general rule of thumb for this approach is that the highest resolution of a given CPC system can be exploited if the Kd value of the target compounds fall in the range of 0.5-2.0. In our case, to get appropriate Kd values for problematic pesticides, the volume ratio of methanol and water was fine-tuned. Ascending mode was used instead of descending mode. For the polar subset of problematic pesticides, this simple modification resulted in an elution profile with significantly improved resolution, however, some coelution still remained.
In the case of apolar pesticides, the less polar solvent system with decreased water content in ascending mode provided satisfactory separation.
Moreover, if we focus on this subset in the three relevant regulatory areas, the outcome is even more favorable. For example, myclobutanil and bifenazate, dominant in all of the three regulatory regions, are fully removable in only one run of the CPC platform.
Based on these results, a generic strategy was created. The workflow starts with a reliable and precise pesticide contamination profile of the cannabis sample, then, if it does not appear to indicate problematic impurity, the material can be purified by the baseline method. However, if coeluting pesticides are present in the input sample, there are two options. First, adjusting the fraction collection of the critical pesticide can be eliminated, however the yield will be compromised in this case. Alternatively, by fine-tuning the solvent system, a second or even a third run of the CPC can solve the problem ultimately. Let me add here, that a third approach, i.e., switching to another solvent system to gain selectivity for problematic pesticides is also feasible in some cases.
In review, RotaChrom has conducted extensive research to analyze the list of pesticides according to the most stringent Canadian requirements. We have found that pesticides can be separated from CBD by utilizing our CPC platform. Most of these pesticides are relatively easy to remove, but RotaChrom has an efficient solution for the problematic pesticides. The methods used at RotaChrom can be easily extended to other input materials and target compounds (e.g., THC, CBG).
Cannabis has long been considered a green industry by the masses.
As a standalone item, the cannabis plant is very environmentally friendly. This is particularly true when it comes to hemp, a variety of the cannabis plant with a huge range of environmental benefits. An extremely versatile and robust crop, hemp uses far less land and water than other common crops and even captures carbon dioxide and regenerates soil. Approximately 20,000 products can be made from its seed, fiber and flower, from biodegradable plastics to food supplements, meaning all in all – it is an environmentally and economically sustainable crop
Yet as with most things, when cultivated in mass, the cannabis plant isn’t quite so green anymore. With its high demand for water, land and artificial lighting, cannabis cultivation can actually leave a large environmental footprint (this does however, pale in comparison to the food industry).
What’s more, many firms do not properly understand how to correctly treat and apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and use a machine gun approach to growing their crops. This can result in unnecessary bleed waste, which in turn can kill micro-organisms and contaminate soil, water and other vegetation. Packaging has also been cited as particularly environmentally unfriendly in the cannabis industry, with several organizations using single use plastic for their products, due to the strict guidelines attached to packaging products of a medical or pharmaceutical nature.
So as the CBD, medical and even adult use cannabis industries become increasingly commercialized across the globe, there is risk cannabis might start moving in the wrong direction when it comes to sustainability.
Still relatively new, the cannabis sector is nascent and exciting, with the global cannabis market size valued at $10.60 billion in 2018 and projected to reach $97.35 billion by the end of 2026. Yet as the industry grows, so too will its footprint.
I’ve seen it first-hand. The industry being hugely competitive, so for companies vying for precious investment and fighting for a spot on the stock market, often, sustainability is the last thing on their minds. In my opinion, this is wrong. Not only morally – we all play a part in looking after our planet – but it’s also a poorly calculated business decision.
It’s no secret sustainability and ESG have become a hot topic when it comes to investing. Just yesterday, Credit Suisse told CNBC that the pandemic has accelerated the trend towards sustainable investments. The bank has even introduced an exclusion strategy whereby those investing can actively exclude controversial sectors.
So with the environment firmly on investors’ minds, cannabis firms need to realize that actually, if they want to secure the support of forward-thinking shareholders, they need to consider more than just the bottom line and truly take the sustainability of their operations into account.
Luckily, there are practices which cannabis cultivators can take on board to reduce their environmental footprint. To start with – growing outdoors. This enables cannabis farmers to harness the sun’s natural power, saving them money on electricity bills and increasing energy efficiency. With cannabis being a rather thirsty plant, water use is also a major concern – although this is nothing compared to the amount of water used by cotton plants. However, it is in fact possible to design indoor operations which recycle close to 100% of the water use, including capturing the perspiration from plants – at AltoVerde this is something we are looking to implement in our upcoming Macedonian sites.
Firms keen to improve on sustainability should also cultivate in a way in which soil is fully replenished and repaired after use – this is called regenerative farming, and it’s extremely effective for maintaining and improving soil quality, biodiversity and crop yields. Another interesting concept is the use of hemp. Some farmers have started using hempcrete – a concrete-like material made from harvested cannabis plants. As if the recycling aspect wasn’t good enough, hempcrete is actually carbon negative, meaning the production of hemp for hempcrete removes more carbon from the atmosphere than it produces.
It’s been incredibly exciting to be a part of the cannabis industry and I am excited to watch its growth in the years to come. It’s taken hard work for the sector to improve its traditionally poor image and to be accepted across the globe, so now, cultivators must lead by example and stop industry from being branded as one which pollutes. By transitioning to more environmentally sustainable practices, firms will be doing their bit for the planet, attracting the investors of tomorrow and ensuring their own success for years to come.
SC Labs, a cannabis testing company with roots in Santa Cruz, California, announced this week that they have developed a comprehensive hemp testing panel that covers a number of contaminants on a national regulatory level. In the press release, the company says they aim to fill the void of national hemp testing requirements.
The hemp testing panel they have developed purportedly meets testing standards in states that require contaminant levels below a certain action limit. The SC Labs hemp testing panel could theoretically be used for regulatory compliance testing across the country, reaching action limits and analyte levels that meet the strictest state requirements.
The panel tests for pesticides, heavy metals, microbiology, mycotoxins, residual solvents and water activity.
The panel is one sign of progress on the long road to nationally harmonized testing standards. “As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now,” says Jeff Gray, CEO of SC Labs. “The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act. As an industry, we’ve been advocating for national, standardized, and transparent testing regulations for years now. The government has been slow to respond so we decided it was time to act.”
SC Labs is headquartered in Santa Cruz, but has licenses in California, Oregon, Texas and Colorado (pending). Their California and Oregon locations are both ISO 17025-accredited and conducting THC-containing cannabis testing, as well as hemp testing.
On June 29, 2021, Cannabis Industry Journal is hosting the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference. From Noon to 5 pm EST, you’ll get access to five veterans of the extraction market discussing a variety of topics related to the ins and outs of extracting cannabis and hemp.
Hear from subject matter experts who will share their perspectives on cannabis and hemp extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, post-processing, risk management, hazards and controls, optimization, closed loop hydrocarbon extraction, machine learning algorithms and more.
Alex Hearding, Chief Risk Management Officer at the National Cannabis Risk Management Association (NCRMA) will kick things off with a session exploring the Hazards and Controls of Extraction with Liquified Petroleum Gases. Dr. Markus Roggen, Founder & CEO of Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures, will follow that up with a discussion surrounding the kinetics and thermodynamics of cannabis extraction.
Other talks from the Cannabis Extraction Virtual Conference include:
The Quest to Discover the Limits of CO2 Extraction
Jeremy Diehl, co-founder & CTO of Green Mill Supercritical
The Future of Cannabis Concentrates: Developments in Hydrocarbon Extraction and Manufacturing
Michelle Sprawls, Laboratory Director at CULTA
Process Scale Up in the Cannabis/Hemp Industry
Darwin Millard, Committee ViceChair on ASTM International’s D37.04 on Processing & Handling of Cannabis
Delta 8 THC (delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol) sprung onto the scene late last year in a big way. While similar to the much more widely-known delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol that produces a lot of the psychoactive effects associated with ingesting cannabis, delta 8 THC can be derived from hemp with less than 0.3% delta 9 THC. Given the legality of hemp-derived products following the 2018 Farm Bill, delta 8 THC can be produced in some states where delta 9 THC still remains illegal.
While delta 8 is considerably different in its psychoactive effects from its cousin, it does overlap in some ways. It can still produce some more manageable, less “heady” versions of delta 9’s effects like euphoria and relief found in the many medical applications of cannabis. DeltaVera, a company that launched less than six months ago, aims to share that more manageable THC experience with the masses.
The sharp rise of the delta 8 market means that DeltaVera is poised for growth. With distribution contracts inked, exciting partnerships in the works and a large surge in consumer demand, the founders of DeltaVera are at the ready to capitalize on this lesser-known molecule and bring it to the forefront of the nascent hemp industry. Starting out as a small family business, Sam and Craig Andrus launched DeltaVera with their third founder, PK Isacs.
We sat down with Sam Andrus and PK Isacs, two of the founders of DeltaVera, an award-winning brand, to ask them about their plans for expanding, how they became entrepreneurs and why they think delta 8 is the next big thing in cannabis.
Cannabis Industry Journal: Tell me about your company. How did you get started in the cannabis space?
Sam Andrus: I had an early start in the Delta 8 THC industry on the sales side. We knew we wanted to get into the market, but observed a number of aspects in the space that needed to be addressed: the most important being quality control, transparency and brand trust. With this as a backdrop we launched DeltaVera. Highly curated, approachable, transparent and value-oriented with a strong focus on reliability and trust. The DeltaVera family is made up of three operating managers and the sales team. We are three founders with complementary skill sets: Craig, who has domain expertise in finance, governance and startups, PK who has experience in business and marketing and my sales experience round out the management team.
We have yet to solicit outside capital and have funded ourselves internally as we create our brand and refine our product offering. That said, we are seeing numerous opportunities in strategic partnerships and expansion, which will require additional capital. And we are excited to start this expansion process.
CIJ: What makes the Delta 8 space so remarkable? Why are your SKUs primarily formulated with Delta 8?
Sam Andrus & PK Isacs: Delta 8 THC is an alternative/complement to delta 9 THC, CBD and other cannabinoids. Its status as non-federally scheduled and its less potent psychoactive effects make it appealing in its own right. Delta 8 THC can help with healthier sleep patterns and with pain management in a way that CBD can’t, without a strong “head high” that many of our customers like to avoid. Additionally, it’s shorter lived and doesn’t give you any negative residual effects, which makes it beneficial for people on tighter schedules. These factors make it easier for us to approach markets that are inaccessible to both delta 9 THC and CBD, such as older demographics. In a world where delta 9 is legal, there will still be a place for delta 8.
While we are very proud of our suite of smokable products, we are currently focusing our efforts on edibles: our Delta Discs are our mainstay, though we are expanding our product line to include nano-emulsion products such as liquid shots and nano gummies. They strongly appeal to our target demographics; additionally, the edible market is growing very quickly in states that allow the sale of hemp-derived consumables.
CIJ: Continuing on the delta 8 front – right now it is considered a cannabinoid legal for interstate commerce, much like CBD, correct? Do you think that will change?
Sam & PK: That is currently the case. Delta 8 THC is newer, and as such, it has even more ambiguity in regards to its legal future. But what’s most exciting (and our most challenging task right now), is informing consumers about the benefits of delta 8. We are one of a few companies solely focused on the consumption of delta 8, because of its similar benefits to delta 9 and CBD – our products are the perfect happy medium: a high with less psychoactive effects and all the health benefits of both, making it a desirable alternative to all consumers.
In addition, we are looking at some combinations of delta 8/CBDA, delta 8/CBN, delta 8/THCV and are very excited to begin test marketing these combinations. These proprietary blends of minor/major cannabinoids can cater to a niche target demographic as they can be curated to have very specific and unique effects when combined in the right quantities with the right delivery system. They will also be able to serve a larger customer base as these cannabinoids can all be derived from hemp.
CIJ: How do you think the FDA would regulate your product? Do you welcome federal oversight?
Sam & PK: Regardless of whether or not we are regulated we are committed to a high level of transparency and trust. As noted in unregulated markets, like the supplement market, you don’t always know what you are getting in terms of purity and potency. We are changing that paradigm by adding unique QR codes to our sustainable containers which reference COAs [certificates of analyses] specific to the contents of the case. A lot of the space is naturally trying to avoid that kind of regulatory interference, but we are currently doing our best to self-regulate and make sure that our consumers are fully informed about what they’re receiving.
We will be the first to say that there aren’t as many laws governing delta 8 THC as there could be, and that’s why we’ve spent so much time and money on self-regulation. All of our products have very clear nutritional information in addition to test results down to one hundredth of one percent. As for what category these products should fall under: we have a wide range of products, and each one has its place under a different umbrella of regulation. We hope that the federal government will take advantage of the vast array of studies that have been conducted on delta 8 THC since it was first extracted in 1942 to step up to this product that is, in our experience, helping so many people.
CIJ: Tell me about how your business has grown so far.
Sam & PK: When we sell to a retailer, we try to provide them with as much material as possible on what delta 8 THC is and what differentiates DeltaVera’s products. Still, we’ve had some difficulty in places with limited delta 8 THC exposure. That being said, when someone tries our product, there is a high likelihood that they become a repeat customer (and they tell their friends). Given our newness to the market (Our brand launched in January 2021) initial indications are – we have a good rate of repeat orders, and we’ve heard the same from our brick-and-mortar partners.
Our distribution network has grown tremendously; we’ve taken a three-pronged approach to distribution: partnerships with like-minded companies in compatible spaces, an e-commerce market on our website, and a commission-based sales structure to reach brick-and-mortar establishments. To date, most of our distribution takes place in the latter two spaces, due to the added time and commitment involved in forming partnerships. As a company we are taking a more creative approach on how we present our product and alternative ways to consume it. We have some exciting collaborations in the works; follow us on social media to stay up to date with everything on the horizon. We are very enthusiastic about our partnerships however, with our first collaboration with WaxNax, a Denver-based company revolutionizing the cannabis dabbing experience, hitting the shelves this week.
CIJ: What is your marketing plan?
Sam & PK: We are working on building a social media presence. Natalie, who is leading the charge on social media, recommended we take an organic approach to build our base. We want to avoid falling into the “paid ad”, “spam” vibe as long as we can. We are currently focused on building a community through delta 8. Our mission is making DeltaVera a brand for all lifestyles, athletes, creatives, travelers or business professionals. We’re confident in our product, and have faith that it can speak for itself.
CIJ: How do you ensure quality in your products?
Sam & PK: Our products are of guaranteed quality with our licensed growers and manufacturers. We provide COAs, informing the retailer & consumer about each product, displaying full panel tests on cannabinoids and heavy metals. These preliminary and secondary lab tests ensure our product is below 0.3% delta 9 THC in all our products. Through third-party labs, we run full panel tests which pick up a variety of cannabinoids; for most of our products we focus on the level/purity of delta 8. Our products are screened for both contaminants and heavy metals.
All this information is housed conveniently on our website that can be reached through our QR codes.
CIJ: What are your plans to grow the business in the future?
Sam & PK: We feel very confident in our three methods of distribution: partnerships, e-commerce and a commission-based sales structure. We’ve made tremendous ground on partnerships, and are very excited about numerous partnerships we have in the pipeline. We’ve reached out to some incredible groups in the CBD space, the THC space and a few groups that you wouldn’t normally associate with cannabinoids, but with whom we’ve workshopped some really creative ideas that we’re really looking forward to bringing to market.
Readers can use promo code “CIJ” to get 15% off their first order here.
In Part 1 of this series we answered the question: What is “hemp”; and addressed some of the consequences of defining “hemp” as a thing. In Part 2, I will explore this topic in more detail and provide some commonsense definitions for several traditional hemp products based on a classification approach rather than separating “cannabis” from “hemp”.
Classifications, Specifications, and Test Methods – Establishing Market Protections for Hemp Products Through Standardization
Does making a distinction between “hemp” and “cannabis” make it easier to protect the interests of the seed and fiber markets?
On the face of it, this question seems obvious. Yes, it does.
Up to this point in history, the bifurcation of the cannabis plant into resin types and non-resin types has served to provide protections for the seed and fiber markets by making it easier for producers to operate, since the resins (the scary cannabinoids, namely d9-THC) were not involved. Today, however, the line in the sand, has been washed away, and “hemp” no longer only refers to non-resin producing varieties of the cannabis plant.
As more and more hemp marketplaces come online with varying limits for d9-THC the need for standardization becomes even more pressing. Without standardization, each marketplace will have its own requirements, forcing businesses looking to sell their products in multiple jurisdictions to comply with each region’s mandates and adds a significant level of burden to their operations.
Providing an internationally harmonized definition for hemp is an important first step but allowing the d9-THC limit to vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction has some unintended (or intended) consequences (#NewReeferMadness). These discrepancies between legal marketplaces will inevitably lead to the establishment of global trade regions; where, if your product cannot meet the definition of “hemp” in that region, then you could effectively be barred from participating in it.
A process which has already started. Harmonizing around 0.3% is great for the US, Canada, and European Union, but what about other stakeholders outside of these markets?
And, at what point does the conflict of hemp from one region with a d9-THC content of 0.3% and hemp from another region with a d9-THC content of 1% being sold into the same market become a problem?
Perhaps a better long-term solution for protecting the market interests of “hemp product” stakeholders would be to establish specifications, such as identity metrics, total cannabinoid content, especially d9-THC, and other quality attributes which have to be verified using test methods for a product to be classified as “hemp”. This system of standards (classifications, specifications, and test methods) would allow for more innovation and make it significantly easier for cannabis raw materials that meet these specifications to find a use rather than being sent to the landfill. Bolstering advancements and opening the door for more market acceptance of the cannabis plant, its parts, and products.
An Alternative Approach to Defining Hemp
Below are some proposed definitions related to common terminology used in the hemp marketplace based on the concept that there are no hemp plants, there are only cannabis plants that can be classified as hemp, and hemp products are simply cannabis products that meet certain specifications to allow them to be classified and represented as hemp.
Hemp, n—commercial name given to a cannabis plant, its parts, and products derived therefrom with a total d9-THC content no more than the maximum allowable limit for the item in question. (Maybe not the best definition, but it makes it clear that not only does the limit for d9-THC vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction it varies from product type to product type as well.)
Hemp flower, n—commercial name for the inflorescence of a cannabis plant that can be classified as hemp.
Hemp seed, n—commercial name for the seeds of a cannabis plant which are intended to be used to grow another cannabis plant that can be classified as hemp.
Hempseed, n—commercial name for the seeds of a cannabis plant which are intended to be used as food or as an ingredient in food.
Hemp seed oil, n—commercial name for the oils expressed from the seeds of a cannabis plant.
Hemp seed cake, n—commercial name for the solid material byproduct generated during the expression of the oil from the seeds of a cannabis plant.
Hemp flour/meal/dietary-fiber, n—commercial name for the powdered seed cake of a cannabis plant intended to be used as a food or as an ingredient in food with a protein content no more than 35% by weight.
Hemp protein powder, n—commercial name for the powdered seed cake of a cannabis plant intended to be used as a food or as an ingredient in food with a protein content between 35% and 80% by weight.
Hemp protein isolate, n—commercial name for the powdered seed cake of a cannabis plant intended to be used as a food or as an ingredient in food with a protein content above 80% by weight.
Hemp fiber, n—commercial name for the cellulosic-based natural fibers of a cannabis plant.
Hemp shives, n—commercial name for the hurd of a cannabis plant which have been processed to defined specifications.
Hempcrete, n—commercial name for a solid amalgamation of various aggregates and binders, typically comprised of the hurd (shives) of a cannabis plant and lime.
The d9-THC limits for each product were purposefully omitted because these specifications still need to be defined for each product type. Leaving the d9-THC limit up to each authority having jurisdiction, however, is not the answer. It is fine if you comply with a lower d9-THC limit and want to sell into a market with a higher d9-THC limit, but what do you do if you are above the limit for the market you want to sell into? For now, you lose out on potential revenue.
I am not advocating that everyone starts selling “hemp” as “cannabis,” or vice versa, far from it. I am advocating for a more commonsense and inclusive approach to the marketplace though. One that would allow for the commercialization of materials that would normally be going to waste.
To me it is simply logical. There are no hemp plants, there are only cannabis plants that can be classified as hemp. There are no hemp products, there are only cannabis products that can be classified as hemp. In order for a cannabis product to be marketed, labeled, and sold as a hemp product, i.e. to be classified as a hemp, it would need to meet a set of specifications and be verified using a set of test methods first. But fundamentally the product would be a cannabis product being certified as “hemp”. And that is the shift in thinking that I am trying to get across.
The cannabis plant is an amazing plant and to fully capitalize on the potential of this crop we have to start allowing for the commercialization of cannabis raw materials that are not controlled by the UN Single Conventions, i.e. the seeds, stalks, roots, and leaves when not accompanied by the fruiting tops or the resin glands. Not to do so disenfranchises a significant number of stakeholders from participating in established legal avenues of trade for these goods. A concept proposed and endorsed the ASTM D37 in the published standard D8245-19: Guide for Disposal of Resin-Containing Cannabis Raw Materials and Downstream Products.
If you are stakeholder in the hemp marketplace, you may feel threatened by the idea of the market getting flooded with material, but how are the demands of the so called “green economy” going to be met without access to more supply? Organic hemp seed for food production is scarce but there is plenty of conventional hemp seed for the current demand, but what happens when hempmilk is positioned to displace soymilk in every major grocery store? To feed the growth of the human population and allow for a transition to a truly “green economy,” we need to ensure that the policies that we are putting in place are not excluding those looking to participate in the industry and disenfranchising stakeholders from burgeoning marketplaces, nor alienating a segment of the marketplace simply because their plant cannot be classified as “hemp”.
The word “hemp” has many meanings. Historically the term has been used as the common name for the Cannabis sativa L. plant. Just like other plants, the cannabis plant has two names, a common name, hemp, and a scientific name, Cannabis sativa L. After the ratification of the UN Single Conventions on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, in 1961 and 1972 respectively, the term started to be used to distinguish between resin producing varieties of the cannabis plant and non-resin producing varieties of the cannabis plant. Nowadays the term is generally used to refer to cannabis plants with a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (d9-THC), a controlled substance, content equal to or less than the maximum allowable limit defined by each marketplace.
In the United States and Canada, the limit is defined as 0.3% on a dry weight bases, and until November 2020, in the European Union, the limit was defined as 0.2%. After years of effort the “hemp” industry in Europe was successfully able to get the limit raised to 0.3% to be in line with the United States and Canada – creating the largest global trade region for hemp products. But there exist several marketplaces around the world where, either through the consequences of geographic location or more progressive regulations, the d9-THC content in the plant can be substantially higher than 0.3% and still considered “hemp” by the local authority.
To address these variances, ASTM International’s Technical Committee D37 on Cannabis has been working on a harmonized definition of hemp, or industrial hemp, depending on the authority having jurisdiction, through the efforts of its Subcommittee D37.07 on Industrial Hemp. The following is a proposed working definition:
hemp, n—a Cannabis sativa L. plant, or any part of that plant, in which the concentration of total delta-9 THC in the fruiting tops is equal to or less than the regulated maximum level as established by an authority having jurisdiction.
Discussion: The term “Industrial Hemp” is synonymous with “Hemp”.
Note: Total delta-9 THC is calculated as Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9 THC) + (0.877 x Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid).
This definition goes a long way to harmonize the various definitions of hemp from around the world, but it also defines “hemp” as a thing rather than as a classification for a type of cannabis plant or cannabis product. This is a concept rooted in the regulatory consequences of the UN Single Conventions, and one I strongly disagree with.
The definition also leaves the total d9-THC limit open-ended rather than establishing a specified limit. An issue I will address further in this series.
Can “hemp products” only come from “hemp plants”?
If you are an invested stakeholder in the traditional “hemp” marketplace, you would say, yes.
But are there such things as “hemp plants” or are there only cannabis plants that can be classified as “hemp”? (The definition for hemp clearly states that it is a cannabis plant…)
There is no distinction between the cannabinoids, seeds, and fibers derived from a cannabis plant that can be classified as “hemp” and those derived from a cannabis plant that cannot. The only difference is the word: “cannabis,” and the slew of negative connotations that come along with it. (Negative connotations that continue to be propagated subconsciously, or consciously, whenever someone says the “hemp plant” has 50,000+ uses, and counting, and will save the world because it’s so green and awesome, but not the “cannabis plant”, no that’s evil and bad, stay away! #NewReeferMadness)
The declaration that “hemp products” only come from “hemp plants” has some major implications. “Hemp seeds” can only come from “hemp plants”. “Hemp seed oils” can only come from “hemp seeds”. “Hemp fibers” can only come from “hemp plants”. Etc.
What does that really mean? What are the real-world impacts of this line of thinking?
Flat out it means that if you are growing a cannabis plant with a d9-THC content above the limit for that plant or its parts to be classified as “hemp”, then the entire crop is subjected to the same rules as d9-THC itself and considered a controlled substance. This means that literal tons of usable material with no resin content whatsoever are destroyed annually rather than being utilized in a commercial application simply because a part or parts of the plant they came from did not meet the d9-THC limit.
It is well known that d9-THC content is concentrated in the glandular trichomes (resin glands) which are themselves concentrated to the fruiting tops of the plant. Once the leaves, seeds, stalks, stems, roots, etc. have been separated from the fruiting tops and/or the resin glands, then as long as these materials meet the authority having jurisdiction’s specifications for “hemp” there should be no reason why these materials could not be marketed and sold as “hemp”.
There are several reasons why a classification approach to “hemp plants” and “hemp products” makes more long-term sense than a bifurcation of the “cannabis” and “hemp” marketplaces, namely from a sustainability aspect, but also to aid in eliminating the frankly unwarranted stigma associated with the cannabis plant. #NewReeferMadness
That said, say you are a producer making shives from the stalks of cannabis plants that can be classified as “hemp” and then all of a sudden, the market opens up and tons of material from cannabis plants that cannot be classified as “hemp,” that was being sent to the landfill, become available for making shives. Would you be happy about this development? Or would you fight tooth and nail to prevent it from happening?
In this segment, we looked at the history of the term “hemp” and some of the consequences from drawing a line in the sand between “cannabis” and “hemp”. I dive deeper into this topic and provide some commonsense definitions for several traditional hemp products in Part 2 of Defining Hemp: Classifications, Policies & Markets.
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